||The aim of this study is to analyse power structures and processes of exclusion between Swedes and immigrants in Örebro. The study appliees a monopolistic approach to show that Swedes exclude immigrants to maintain a dominant power position. Exclusion is understood as a process resulting from asymmetric power relations. Digeser´s fourth face of foucauldian discursive power, Lukes´ third face of system power, Bachrach and Baratz´ second face of non decision-making, and Dahl´s first face of decision-making, are employed to elaborate four typpes of exclusion: the construction of discursive roles, the control of thoughts, the raising of barriers, and the control over decision-making.
Three perspectives of policy analysis are applied to scrutinize the policy fields of labour market, housing and culture.
1) Structure analysis focuses on ethnic representation and participation. 2) Policy formulation analysis examines the content of formal policy documents and policy processes of key policy issues. 3) Discourse analysis deconstructs norms and the roles that are produced. The perspectives open up different insights when analysing power. Structure analysis focuses on potential power aspects, policy formulation analysis on relationss in decision-making and agenda setting, and discourse analysis on power over thoughts and in the construction of political roles.
The findings of this study indicate that immigrants are excluded by receiving different policy roles, e.g. ´the unemployed´, ´the segregated´, and ´the culturally deviants´(4th face). Immigrants unemployed is due to deficient knowledge in Swedish and their presence is ignored in issues rrelated to city growth. Housing segregation is ether portrayed as a class-dependent issue or as a process that pull immigrants to their own compatriots. (3rd face). Exclusion occurs when Swedes raise barriers, though anticipation, mobilisation of Swedish bias and cooptation hinder or transform immigrant-related initiatives (2nd face). Finally, insufficient ethnic representatioon, lack of political support, and centralisation of the policy fields to the core of the urban political elite create patterns of powerlessness (1st face).
The study shows that the opportunities for immigrants to participate in and influence urban politics dominated by Swedes are few and that immigrants continously become excluded from the Swedish urban life.